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French conjugation

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French conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a French verb from its principal parts by inflection. In French, a verb is inflected to reflect its mood and tense, as well as to agree with its subject in person and number. French verbs are conventionally divided into three conjugations (conjugaisons) with the following grouping:

Second group verbs: verbs ending in

(with the exception of irregular verbs)

The first two groups follow a regular conjugation, whereas the third group follows an irregular one. The third group is considered a closed-class conjugation form, meaning that most new verbs introduced to the French language are of the first group (tlviser, atomiser, radiographier), with the remaining ones being of the second group (alunir).

The verb aller is the only verb ending in -er belonging to the third group.

Our french conjugation engine conjugates almost 10000 french verbs in all moods, all tenses and all forms.

French verbs have a large number of simple (one-word) forms. These are composed of two distinct parts: the stem (or root, or radix), which indicates which verb it is, and the ending (inflection), which indicates the verbs tense and mood and its subjects person and number, though many endings can correspond to multiple tense-mood-subject combinations. In certain parts of the second conjugation there is also a suffix

between the stem and the ending, which derives historically from an inchoative suffix.

marks the third-person plural imperfect indicative.

marks the first-person plural present indicative or imperative. Note that it is sometimes difficult to distinguish the stem from the ending, especially in irregular verbs such as avoir, aller, dire, tre, faire, pouvoir, savoir, valoir, and vouloir.

There are seven different moods in French conjugation: indicative (indicatif), subjunctive (subjonctif), conditional (conditionnel), imperative (impratif), infinitive (infinitif), participle (participe), and gerund (grondif). The infinitive, participle, and gerundive are not verbal moods.

Conjugations for the different French verb tenses can be divided into two categories: simple and compound. Simple tenses have only one part (

) whereas compound tenses have two: an auxiliary verb and the past participle (

). The auxiliary verb is always either

There are 8 compound tenses based on the conjugation of the auxiliaries in the 8 simple tenses added to the past participle. Below you will find the list of the french tenses. Tenses are described under the mood to which they belong, and they are grouped as follows. Other compound tenses are constructed through the use of an auxiliary verb:

Present perfect (pass compos): formed with an auxiliary verb in the present

Pluperfect (plus-que-parfait): formed with an auxiliary verb in the imperfect

Past perfect (pass antrieur): formed with an auxiliary verb in the simple past

Future perfect (futur antrieur): formed with an auxiliary verb in the simple future

Past (pass): formed with an auxiliary verb in the subjunctive present

Pluperfect (plus-que-parfait): formed with an auxiliary verb in the subjunctive imperfect

Past form 1 (pass premire forme): formed with an auxiliary verb in the present conditional

Past form 2 (pass deuxime forme): formed with an auxiliary verb in the imperfect subjunctive

Past (pass): formed with an auxiliary verb in the present imperative

Past (pass): formed with an auxiliary verb in the present infinitive

Gerund (Grondif): (constructed by preceding the present participle with the preposition

In French, a verb is inflected to reflect its mood and tense, as well as to agree with its subject in person and number. Following the tradition of Latin grammar, the set of inflected forms of a French verb is called the verbs conjugation.

More than 10000 French verbs exist, but only 2000 of them are frequently used.

Auxiliaries of the french conjugation

Conjugations for the different French verb tenses can be divided into two categories: simple and compound. Simple tenses have only one part (

) whereas compound tenses have two: an auxiliary verb and the past participle (

The auxiliary verb is always eitheravoirortre.

The french first group verbs are the verbs ending in

. This is the largest class (90% of french verbs). French verbs ending in

inflect somewhat differently from other verbs. Between the stem and the inflectional endings that are common across most verbs, there may be a vowel, which in the case of the

/e/ (in the past participle and the je form of the simple past), and

/a/ (in the rest of simple past singular and in the past subjunctive). In addition, the orthographic

verbs in the singular of the simple present and past is not found in this conjugation, so that the final consonants are

The conjugation table of the first group follow the conjugation of the verbaimer. The endings for the conjugation of the french first group verbs are regular (even if the stems are not always regular).

Endings for the conjugation of the french first group verbs

:-e, -es, -e, -ons, -ez, -ent

: -ais, -ais, -ait, -ions, -iez, -aient

: -erai, -eras, -era, -erons, -erez, -eront

: -ai, -as, -a, -âmes, -âtes, -rent

: -e, -es, -e, -ions, -iez, -ent

: -asse, -asses, -ât, -assions, -assiez, -assent

: -erais, -erais, -erait, -erions, -eriez, -eraient

Conjugations for the different French verb tenses can be divided into two categories: simple and compound. Simple tenses have only one part (

) whereas compound tenses have two: an auxiliary verb and the past participle (

). The auxiliary verb is always either

There are 8 compound tenses based on the conjugation of the auxiliaries in the 8 simple tenses added to the past participle:

auxiliary in present indicative + past participle of main verb = present perfect indicative (

auxiliary in imperfect indicative + past participle of main verb = pluperfect indicative (

auxiliary in simple past indicative + past participle of main verb = past perfect indicative (

auxiliary in simple future indicative + past participle of main verb = future perfect indicative (

auxiliary in present subjunctive + past participle of main verb = past subjunctive (

auxiliary in imperfect subjunctive + past participle of main verb = pluperfect subjunctive (

auxiliary in present conditional + past participle of main verb = past conditional (

auxiliary in present imperative + past participle of main verb = past imperative (

The french second group verbs are the verbs ending in

. The conjugation table of the secound group follow the conjugation of the verbfinir. The

The vowel of the inflections is always

in the past subjunctive rather than the

A few of the singular inflections themselves change, though this is purely orthographic and does not affect the pronunciation: in the simple present and past, these are -s, -s, -t rather than -Ø, -s, -Ø. (The change in pronunciation is due to the change of vowel from e, ai, a to -i-.)

In the simple present, imperfect, the present subjunctive, and the gerund, a suffix

/is/ appears between the root and the inflectional endings. In the simple present singular, this suffix has disappeared and the endings are

The stem of the second group verbs is regular except for the verbsfleurirandhaïr.

The endings for the conjugation of the french secound group verbs are regular.

Endings for the conjugation of the french second group verbs

: -is, -is, -it, -issons, -issez, -issent

: -issais, -issais, -issait, -issions, -issiez, -issaient

: -irai, -iras, -ira, -irons, -irez, -iront

: -is, -is, -it, -îmes, -îtes, -irent

: -isse, -isses, -isse, -issions, -issiez, -issent

: -isse, -isses, -ît, -issions, -issiez, -issent

: -irais, -irais, -irait, -irions, -iriez, -iraient

Conjugations for the different French verb tenses can be divided into two categories: simple and compound. Simple tenses have only one part (

) whereas compound tenses have two: an auxiliary verb and the past participle (

). The auxiliary verb is always either

There are 8 compound tenses based on the conjugation of the auxiliaries in the 8 simple tenses added to the past participle:

auxiliary in present indicative + past participle of main verb = present perfect indicative (

auxiliary in imperfect indicative + past participle of main verb = pluperfect indicative (

auxiliary in simple past indicative + past participle of main verb = past perfect indicative (

auxiliary in simple future indicative + past participle of main verb = future perfect indicative (

auxiliary in present subjunctive + past participle of main verb = past subjunctive (

auxiliary in imperfect subjunctive + past participle of main verb = pluperfect subjunctive (

auxiliary in present conditional + past participle of main verb = past conditional (

auxiliary in present imperative + past participle of main verb = past imperative (

The first two groups follow a regular conjugation, whereas the third group follows an irregular one. The third group is considered a closed-class conjugation form, meaning that most new verbs introduced to the French language are of the first group (tlviseratomiserradiographier, verbs in

), with the remaining ones being of the second group (verbs in

). The verballeris the only verb ending in

belonging to the third group. Some verbs of the third group are totally irregulars:direfairepouvoirsavoirvaloirvouloir.

Below you will find the endings of the third group verbs for each tense.

There are two types of endings in present indicative :

First type of endings for the verbs:

Second type of endings for the others verbs:

There are four types of endings in simple past indicative :

Jallai, tu allas, il alla, nous allâmes, vous allâtes, ils allrent.

-is, -is, -it, -îmes, -îtes, -irent

Je descendis, tu descendis, il descendit, nous descendîmes, vous descendîtes, ils descendirent.

-us, -us, -ut, -ûmes, -ûtes, -urent

Je courus, tu courus, il courut, nous courûmes, vous courûtes, ils coururent.

-ins, -ins, -int, -înmes, -întes, -inrent

Je tins, tu tins, il tint, nous tînmes, vous tîntes, ils tinrent.

In simple future, endings are always

Je partirai, tu partiras, il partira, nous partirons, vous partirez, ils partiront

Only the stem changes for a few verbs :

Je descendrai ; je prendrai ; je rpandrai ; je boirai

Jacquerrai ; je courrai ; je mourrai ; je pourrai ; je verrai

Tu cueilleras, nous accueillerons, ils recueilleraient

Aller =

jirai, Avoir =

jaurai, Etre =

In present conditional the endings are the following :

-ais, -ais, -ait, -ions, -iez, -aient

Je partirais, tu partirais, il partirait, nous partirions, vous partiriez, ils partiraient

Le stem is the same as simple futur:

je boirai / je boirais ; tu pourras / tu pourrais ; il cueillera / il cueillerait ; nous irons /nous irions

The stem in present subjunctive is usually derived from that of the third person plural in present indicative except for the verbs

je suis, tu suis, il suit, nous suivons, vous suivez, ils suivent

(que) je suive, tu suives, il suive, nous suivions, vous suiviez, ils suivent

je veux, tu veux, il veut, nous voulons, vous voulez, ils veulent

(que) je veuille, tu veuilles, il veuille, nous voulions, vous vouliez, ils veuillent

When the stem of the first and second person plural in present indicative is not the same as the four other persons, the stem of the first and second person plural in present indicative is used for the first and second person plural in present subjunctive:

je dois, tu dois, il doit, nous devons, vous devez, ils doivent

(que) je doive, tu doives, il doive, nous devions, vous deviez, ils doivent

Endings are the followings except fortreandavoir:

que je sorte, que tu sortes, quil sorte, que nous sortions, que vous sortiez, quils sortent

The stem in imperfect subjunctive is derived from that of the secund person singular in simple past indicative (except for the secund person singular where the

on the preceding vowel). There are four type of endings in imperfect subjonctive:

-se, -ses, -^t, -sions, -siez, -sent

(Il fallait) que jallasse, que tu allasses, quil allât, que nous allassions, que vous allassiez, quils allassent

(Il fallait) que je prisse, que tu prisses, quil prît, que nous prissions, que vous prissiez, quils prissent

(Il fallait) que je pusse, que tu pusses, quil pût, que nous pussions, que vous pussiez, quils pussent

(Il fallait) que je vinsse, que tu vinsses, quil vînt, que nous vinssions, que vous vinssiez, quils vinssent

The conjugation in present subjunctive is usually derived from that of the conjugation in present indicative.:

avoir , tre, savoir, vouloir, assaillir, couvrir, cueillir, dfaillir, offrir, ouvrir, souffrir, tressaillir

Cueille, ouvre, va, aie, sache, veuille

rire, suivre, luire, suffire, nuire

courir, couvrir, frir, mourir, offrir, ouvrir, qurir, souffrir, tenir, venir, vtir

Parti, souri, sorti, suivi, suffi, lui, nui, ri

and similar verbs) and for verbs in

absoudre, clore, dissoudre, clore, inclure, mettre, prendre

Pu, voulu, vu, bu, descendu, tordu, couru, tenu, venu, vtu

absoudre, acqurir, asseoir ou assoir, circoncire, clore, conqurir, dissoudre, enqurir, inclure, mettre, occire, prendre

Acquis, conquis, enquis, requis, circoncis, mis, occis, pris, sis, clos, absous, dissous, inclus

couvrir, offrir, mourir, ouvrir, souffrir

Couvert, offert, mort, ouvert, souffert

confire, dire, crire, frire, faire, traire

Confit, dit, crit, frit, fait, trait

Conjugations for the different French verb tenses can be divided into two categories: simple and compound. Simple tenses have only one part (

) whereas compound tenses have two: an auxiliary verb and the past participle (

). The auxiliary verb is always either

There are 8 compound tenses based on the conjugation of the auxiliaries in the 8 simple tenses added to the past participle:

auxiliary in present indicative + past participle of main verb = present perfect indicative (

auxiliary in imperfect indicative + past participle of main verb = pluperfect indicative (

auxiliary in simple past indicative + past participle of main verb = past perfect indicative (

auxiliary in simple future indicative + past participle of main verb = future perfect indicative (

auxiliary in present subjunctive + past participle of main verb = past subjunctive (

auxiliary in imperfect subjunctive + past participle of main verb = pluperfect subjunctive (

auxiliary in present conditional + past participle of main verb = past conditional (

auxiliary in present imperative + past participle of main verb = past imperative (


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